|24. Regulations Concerning the Prevention of Industrial Accidents Resulting
From Cargo Handling Work
Although cargo-handling work in Japan has achieved a remarkable level of
mechanization in recent years, a number of accidents continue to occur
in such work every year. The Industrial Safety and Health Law and related
regulations require employers to take the following steps in addition to
measures to prevent accidents due to cargo-handling and hauling machines.
|1. Appointing operations chiefs, etc.
Operations chiefs and similar leaders shall be appointed when the following
operations are performed involving cargo-handling, etc.
|a. Loading and unloading cargoes with a weight of 100 kilograms or more
|b. Making and breaking of cargo piles (cargoes stacked in a warehouse,
under a storage shed or on the ground) with a height of two meters or more
(operations chief of cargo pilling).
|c. Loading/unloading or moving cargoes to and from or in ships (operations
chief of stevedore).
|2. Securing safety in making and breaking of cargo pile.
|a. Installing facilities for going up and down cargo piles
Facilities shall be installed to allow workers to safely go up and down
cargo piles when such work is performed at workplaces with a height of
1.5 meters or more from the floor.
|b. Intervals between cargo piles
Cargo piles shall be placed with an interval of ten centimeters or more
between them when the height of piled cargo reaches two meters or more.
|c. Pulling out of middle cargo first is prohibited, etc;
Cargo should not be pulled out from the middle of a pile when its height
is two meters or more. Where sacks are piled, cargo shall be taken from
the top of the pile as the first step and gradually moved by making tiered
platforms. The height of each platform shall be 1.5 meters or less.
|d. Prevention for the collapse of cargo pilling, etc;
|In the event of any risk of collapse or falling of cargo piles, they shall
be tied with ropes, protected with nets or piled up again.
|No persons shall be allowed to enter into places where work related to
making or breaking cargo piles is being carried out.
|Adequate lighting shall be provided at places where work related to making
or breaking cargo piles is being carried out.
|Workers shall be required to use protective helmets when they work on cargo
piles of a height of two meters or more.
|3. Securing safety in on-board cargo-handling work:
|a. Installing facilities to go up and down
Facilities to ensure safe passage shall be provided on ships where the
height between the deck and the bottom of the hold exceeds 1.5 meters.
(Except for ships having their own facilities)
Workers shall not be allowed to move by using such facilities when cargo
hoisting equipment or mobile cranes are in operations.
|b. Prohibiting entry
No persons shall be allowed to enter the following places:
|Under places where work is being carried out involving the opening and
closing of a hatch board or a hatch beam is being installed or removed.
|Places where the beams of cargo-lifting machine are moving upward or downward.
|The interior angles of pulling ropes when a cargo-lifting machine is used
to pull out cargoes with rope. Grooved pulleys attached to the rope shall
be tightly fixed to the ship frame with beam clamps or shackles.
|c. Confirming the existence of harmful substances
|The existence of harmful substances, such as chlorine, cyanic acid, or
tetraalkyllead, which are likely to cause acute poisoning, or other dangerous
things such as corrosive liquids or gunpowder, shall be confirmed in advance
inside cargoes in the hold or on the deck or the wharf before the start
of work. If such substances are found, safe handling methods shall be defined
and measures shall be determined in advance for instances in which such
substance are scattered or have leaked.
|d. Prohibition of concurrent work
Concurrent operations shall be prohibited at different platforms in the
|e. Use of slings
|Drum slings or other similar slings with hooks shall be used for the slinging
of drums and barrels.
|Slings shall not be directly hooked onto iron belts, ropes or wires used
to bale such materials as cotton, wool or cork.
|f. Workers shall be required to use protective helmets when they are engaged
in in-port cargo-handling work.
|4. Handling of cargo-hoisting equipment
|a. Load limitations
Cargo-hoisting equipment shall not be used for lifting loads exceeding
a prescribed limitations.
|b. Appoint signaler
In operating cargo-hoisting equipment, operation signals shall be defined in advance and a signaler shall be appointed for each device.
|c. Prohibition of leaving working position
The operator of cargo-hoisting equipment shall not leave his working position
during the hoisting operations of the equipment.
|d. Safety factors
|Chains, hooks or shackles shall meet pre-defined safety factors when used
for slinging operations.
|Wire ropes, chains or fiber ropes failing to qualify under pre-defined
requirements shall not be used.
Operational conditions of the cargo-hoisting equipment and slings shall
be inspected in advance of the start of operations.
|(General health standards for offices will be discussed in the next session)